Founders and Members of Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophical Society

Vladimir SolovyovVladimir Solovyov’s First Russian Philosophical Society was founded in St. Petersburg in 1897. The Russian Psychological Society was founded in Moscow in 1895. The two groups were closely related.

After Solovyov’s death in 1903, the society morphed into the St. Petersburg Religious Philosophical Society under the leadership of Sergei Bulgakov and embraced the Symbolists and Silver Age cultural artists. These meetings continued even after 1917 with Berdyaev’s Free Academy of Spiritual Culture and other such groupings up until 1922.

Because the original Charter of the First Russian Philosophical Society is not available, I have compiled the most complete list I can of the varied participants who are named as members. It is by no means comprehensive. At their height, almost 2000 people are known to have been members.

See: The First Russian Philosophical Society for a website that has renewed the society since Russia’s most recent Revolution from Within!

The associated journals between 1897-1917 were:

  • Voprosy Filosofii (Problems of Philosophy)
  • Put’ (The Way)
  • Novyi Put’ (New Way)
  • Logos (Logic / the Word)
  • Rus (Russia)

“Separate meetings attracted the particular attention of the press and caused much controversy — for example, a session devoted to the book “Milestones” (April 21, 1909) or exclusion of V.v. Rozanov from members of the public (January 26, 1914). The audience was going so much that sometimes rented for meeting room does not accommodate all comers. Full house, according to the journalist, the meeting took place on “Milestones”(Vekhi), “the small hall was packed. People stood in the doorway, bunched up on the stage, huddled in the next room. On stage if was so crowded that Peter Struve and Alexander Blok, holding on to each other, sat on one chair.”[i]

The number of members of the Society grew steadily with each passing year. According to newspaper reports, in 1909, there were 712 people (87 full members and 625 associate members). By January 1, 1914 in society had grown to 1, 263 members, of which 149 were full members and 1,114 were associate members.

1 Aggeev,   Konstantin Markovich  (1868-1920   or 1921) Archpriest, Theologian. Exact date of death during Civil War   unknown. “Soul Profile”
2 Alekseev,   S.
3 Anichkov,   Evgeny Vasilyevich (1866-1937) 101 works in 168   publications in 6 languages and 750 library holdings. History of Russian   Literature,“New Russian Poetry”
4 Askoldov,   S. A. (1871-1945) Foremost philosopher following   Leibniz in Russia; Biographer of Alexei Alexandrovich Kozlov. Colleague of N.O. Lossky at University. Participated in Iz Glubiny
5 Batyushkov,   Feodor Dmitrievich (1857-1920) Poet. Correspondent with Anton Chekhov. Son of Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov   who is said to have influenced Pushkin. Editor of the “Legal Marxist” journal   Mir Bozhii (World of God)
6 Bazarov,   Vladimir Alexandrovich (1874-1939) Russian Marxist revolutionary, journalist,   philosopher, and economist, born Vladimir Alexandrovich Rudnev. Bazarov is   best remembered as a pioneer in the development of economic planning in the   Soviet Union.
7 Bekhterev,   Vladimir Mikhailovich (1857-1927) Russian   neurologist, psychologist and physiologist. Noted the role of the hippocampus  in memory, his study of reflexes, and Bekhterev’s  disease. Competed with Ivan Pavlov   regarding the study of conditioned reflexes. He coined the term “invasion of the psyche” in the field of hypnosis, and was a teacher for the officers of the NKVD (KGB) before his death. Member of the Academy of Sciences.
8 Bely,   Andrei (1880-1934) Famous Russian writer, poet and   literary critic prominent in the Symbolist movement. Born Boris Bugaev, he was son of Nikolai Bugaev, who is regarded as a founder of the Moscow school of mathematics.
9 Berdyaev, Nikolai Alexandrovich (1874-1948) Existentialist and Spiritual Philosopher; Legal Marxists,  Vladimir Solovyov   Society, Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, Bratstvo
10 Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Konstantin N. (1829-1897) Professor of Saint-Petersburg State University; Chair of Russian History. In 1878 he founded and gave his name to the Bestuzhev Courses, “the largest and most   prominent women’s higher education institution in Russia.”
11 Bezobrazova,   Maria (1856-1914) A daughter of the well-known Russian economist and professional philosopher, who had brilliantly defended her dissertation at Zurich University, and was critical in getting the original Philosophical Society founded.
12 Blok,   Alexander (1880-1921) Poet, critic. Leading Symbolist   in the Silver Age.
13 Boborykin,   Peter Dmitrievich (1836-1921) Writer, playwright and   journalist. Elected honorary member of Russian Academy of Sciences in   1900. Attributed with coining the term   “intelligentsia.”
14 Boldirev,   N. F. (1861-1920)
15 Borodaevsky,   V. V. Poet
16 Borodin,   Alexander Kornilievich (1863-1918) Writer; Literary Critic
17 Bulgakov,   Sergei Nikolayevich (1871-1944) Orthodox Priest and   Spiritual Philosopher.Elected Head of the Bratstvo   in 1924. Legal Marxists, Vladimir Solovyov Society, Free Academy of Spiritual   Culture. St. Sergius Theological Seminary in Paris
18 Butlerov,   Alexander Mikhailovich (1828-1886) Famous   Russian Chemist; Member of the Academy of Sciences. Helped Solovyov with first effort to found   the Society.
19 Chulkov,   Georges I. (1879-1939) Literary Critic;   Futurist; Later became Eurasianist
20 Debolsky,   N. G. Philosopher (Kantian)   Epistemologist, Logician, Metaphysician
21 Ern,   Vladimir (1882-1917) Protégé of Vladimir   Solovyov; Gnostic and Spiritual Philosopher
22 Faminzin,   A. S. (1841-1896) Musician   and Professor; Opera Composer; Member of the Academy of Sciences. Helped Solovyov with first attempt to   establish the Society.
23 Fedorov,   Nikolai (1829-1903) Famous Cosmologist and   Futurist Philosopher; Spiritual Philosopher
24 Filippov,   M. Economist; Philosopher
25 Filosofov,   Dmitri Vladimirovich (1872-1940) Newspaper Editor and   Critic; Lived with Merezhkovsky and Gippius
26 Fischer,   Kuno (1824-1907) German Philosopher, Honorary Member of the Society; Neo-Kantian
27 Florensky,   Pavel A. (1882-1937) Orthodox Priest and   Spiritual Philosopher; Mathematician and Electrical Engineer; Inventor;   Arrested in the 1922 wave but repressed inside of Russia, not expelled. Executed in 1937 by the NKVD   (GPU/Cheka/KGB) during Stalin’s purges.
28 Frank,   Semen (1877-1950) Spiritual Philosopher.Legal Marxists,  Vladimir Solovyov   Society, Free Academy of Spiritual   Culture, Bratstvo
29 Frankovsky,   A. A. (1888-1942) Philosopher and   Translator; Member after 1917
30 Gavrilovich,   Osip Solomonovich (1878-1936) Pianist, Conductor and Composer; Settled in the USA   after 1918
31 Gershenzon,   Mikhail (1869-1925) Contributor to Vekhi   and Iz Glubiny, may have been   member of the Bratstvo, edited the   correspondence between Dostoyevsky and Solovyov
32 Ginsburg,   Boris Abramovich (1863-1919) Social Democrat Revolutionary
33 Gippius,   Zinaida (1869-1945) Literary Critic and Poet;   Co-founder of Russian Symbolism with Dmitri Merezhkovsky (her husband)
34 Godlevsky,   S.
35 Golovin Prince, F.A. Leader of Kadet Party and   President of the Duma after 1905; Presided over the dissolution of the   Monarchy in 1917.
36 Grot,   Nikolai (1852-1899) Russia’s leading Idealist   Philosopher; Chairman of Moscow Psychological Society and first editor of Voprosy   filosofii
37 Heels,   Sergei Rakhmanov (1881-1919) Russian religious and social   activist; Secretary of the St. Petersburg Society 1909-1913. Mentor to Osip Mandelstam
38 Ilyin, Ivan   Alexandrovich (1883-1954) Spiritual and Political   Philosopher.Vladimir Solovyov Society, Vol’fila
39 Ivanov,   Vyacheslav (1866-1949) Russian Symbolist Poet   and Playwright
40 Izgoev-Lande, Alexander Solomonovich (1872-1935) Spiritual Philosopher & Journalist.Began as Marxist Sociologist; Bratstvo;   Vladimir Solovyov Society
41 Iziumov, Alexander Filaretovich (1885-1951) Archivist; Specialist of co-ops   & partner in Zadruga publishing co-op. Member of People’s Socialist Party
42 Kamenskaya,   A.
43 Karinsky,   M. I. Professor   of Saint-Petersburg Ecclesiastical Academy, Honorary Member
44 Karsavin, Lev,   Platonovich (1882-1952) Philosopher and Historian.Rector of University of St. Petersburg; Vladimir Solovyov Society; Vol’fila; Bratstvo
45 Kartashev, Anton, V. (1875-1960) Russian Journalist and Professor   of Church History; First Minister of Religion under the Provisional   Government.Vladimir Solovyov Society; Member of Kadet Central Committee 1906-1918 and   one of co-founders of original Bratstvo   1918-1922
46 Kerensky,   Alexander (1881-1970) Socialist   Revolutionary Political Philosopher and Leader; Head of the Provisional   Government when the Bolsheviks took power
47 Kireev,   Alexander A. Major   General of Cavalry; Newspaper Columnist; Patron of Solovyov and Dostoevsky
48 Kistiakovsky,   Bogdan (1868-1920) Legal Philosopher; Chair of Law at Kiev University;   Kadet.Died before expulsions of 1922.
49 Kizevetter, Alexander Alexandrovich (1866-1933) Historian and Politician.Cadet, deputy at 2nd Duma; Vladimir   Solovyov Society; listed in Frank’s correspondence as member of the Bratstvo
50 Kolubovsky,   Y. N. Member   of the Academy of Sciences
51 Koni,   Anatoli Fedorovich (1844-1927) Jurist;   Prosecutor-General; Member of Academy of Sciences
52 Kotliarevsky,   Sergei A. (1873-1939) Russian   Liberal Theorist and Kantian Philosopher. Participated in Iz Glubiny
53 Kozhevnikov,   Vladimir
54 Kuznetsov,   N. D. (1850-1929) Painter   and Artist
55 Lappo Ivan Ivanovich (1866-1924) Historian;   Sociologist. One of original members   of the Bratstvowho   continued in 1923.
56 Lappo-Danilevsky,   A. S. (1863-1919) Historian
57 Lapshin, Ivan Ivanovich (1870-1952) Neo-Kantian Philosopher; Member of   the Academy of Sciences.Philosopher, Professors Union   Petrograd
58 Lavrov,   Peter (1823-1900) Leader   of the Populist Socialist Movement “Narodnik;” Philosopher and Sociologist
59 Lodyzhensky,   Mitrofan Vasilyevich (1852-1917) Spiritual Philosopher
60 Lopatin,   L. M. (1855-1920) Philosopher; Close friend of   Vladimir Solovyov; President of the Moscow Psychological Society
61 Lossky, Nikolai Onovreievich (1870-1965) Idealist and Spiritual   Philosopher.Vladimir Solovyov Society, Vol’fila; Bratstvo
62 Melioransky,   B. Geographer and Correspondent
63 Merezhkovsky,   Dmitri (1866-1941) Poet, Novelist; Co-founder of Symbolist Movement   with his wife Zinaida Gippius; Spiritual Philosopher
64 Meyer,   A. A.
65 Minsky,   Nikolai (1855-1937) Symbolist   Writer and Poet
66 Morozova,   Margarita K. (1873-1958) Philanthropist   and Patron of the Arts who provided the investment for many of the Religious   Philosophical journals and publications. A co-founder of the Moscow-based   Religious and Philosophical Society (1905–1918).
67 Muraviev,   Vasily N. (1866-1929) Writer,   Philosopher, then entered the Orthodox Monastic Orders of the St. Alexander   Nevsky Lavra in 1920. Contributor to Iz   Glubiny
68 Myakotin, Benedict   Alexandrovich (1867-1937) Historian and Founder of the   Popular Socialist Party; Worked closely with Struve and helped found the   Kadet Party. Editor of Russkoe Bogatstvo (“The Wealth of Russia”)
69 Nechaev,   A. L. Member   of the Academy of Sciences
70 Novgorodtsev, Paul (1866-1924) Cofounder of Kadet Party, Legal Philosopher
71 Obolensky   , Vladimir Andreevich (1869-1938) Religious Writer and   Kadet Political Leader
72 Odintsov,   M. V.
73 Oldenburg,   Sergei Fedorovich (1863-1934) Russian Orientalist and Buddhist   Scholar; Member of the Kadet Party and Academy of Sciences. VKPG
74 Ostrovsky,   Mikhail Nikolayevich (1827-1901) Statesman   and Minister of State Property
75 Petrazycki,   Leon (1867-1931) Polish Philosopher, Legal Scholar and Sociologist; Leader of St.   Petersburg Group (1907-1917)
76 Pogodin,   A.
77 Pomyalovsky,   Ivan V.
78 Prince Trubetskoy, Evgeny (1863-1920) Spiritual Philosopher with brother Sergei; Students   of Solovyov; Vladimir Solovyov Society, Bratstvo, Kadet Party founder.
79 Prince   Trubetskoy, Sergei Nikolayevich (1863-1905) Spiritual Philosopher with brother   Evgeny; Students of Solovyov; Vladimir Solovyov Society, Bratstvo, Kadet   Party founder.
80 Radlov,   Ernest Leopoldovich (1854-1928) Ethician;   Professor; Member of the Academy of Sciences; Became Chairman of the St.   Petersburg Society after 1917
81 Rozanov,   Vasily (1856-1919) Controversial Spiritual   Philosopher and Symbolist Writer
82 Saratonov,   , V. V.
83 Solartinsky,   S. A.
84 Solovyov,   Vladimir Sergyevich (1853-1900) Founder   of the First Philosophical Society in Russia; Member of the Academic   Committee of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment; Inspired the renaissance   of Spiritual Philosophy & Sobornost’
85 Sorokin, Pitirim Alexandrovich (1889-1968) Sociologist; Secretary to   Alexander Kerensky after the March 1917 Revolution; Ekonomist
86 Spencer,   Herbert (1820-1903) English Philosopher, Honorary Member
87 Strachov,   Nikolai N. (1828-1896) Member   of the Academic Committee of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment who tried   to help Solovyov set up the Society earlier. Close friend of Tolstoy
88 Struve,   Peter (1871-1944) Legal   Marxist became Kadet and Spiritual Philosopher; Vladimir Solovyov Society,
89 Sventsitsky,   Valentin P. (1881-1931) Theologian   and Philosopher
90 Sveshnikov,   M. Scientist;   Chemist
91 Taube,   Mikhail (1869-1961) Statesman; Lawyer;   Diplomat; Historian. Converted from   Orthodoxy to the Russian Greek Catholic Church
92 Ternavtsev,   Valentin Alexandrovich (1866-1940) Moscow group; Employee of the   Holy Synod (Orthodox Church) and Spiritual Philosopher
93 Tolstoy,   Lev Nikolayevich (1828-1910) Famous Writer, Honorary Member
94 Tugan-Baronovsky,   Mikhail I. (1865-1919) Legal Marxist and Theoretician
95 Velikhov,
96 Vernadsky, Vladimir I (1863-1945) Spiritual Philosopher and Scientist. Colleague of   Teilhard de Chardin; Father of George Vernadsky
97 Volkonsky,   Sergei Mikhailovich (1870-1940) Leading Philologist; Created   Actor’s Training; Associated with Diaghilev (Ballet Russes) and friend of   Vladimir Solovyov
98 Vedensky,   Alexander Ivanovich (1856–1925) Philosopher, Psychologist and Pedagogical Professor, 1st Chairman of the Society
99 Vysheslavtsev, Boris Petrovich (1877-1954) Spiritual Philosopher;   Moscow group. Student of Paul Novgorodtsev and recommended by Berdyaev.   Joined the Bratstvo in1924.   Vladimir Solovyov Society, Free   Academy of Spiritual Culture
100 Wundt,   Wilhelm (1832-1920) Psychologist, honorary member
101 Yasevich-Borodaevskaya,   Barbara I. (1861-1920) Researcher   of the Old Believers and sectarianism. Revolutionary; lawyer; member of the   Russian Geographical and St. Petersburg Religious-Philosophical Society, the   Law Society at St. Petersburg University.
102 Yashenko,   A. S. Printer for Vladimir Solovyov Society, editor of Novyi Put’
103 Zelinsky,   F. F. (1859-1944) Polish-Russian Classical   Scholar and Greek Religion Professor
104 Zeller,   Eduard (1814-1908) German Professor of Theology;   Historian of Philosophy, Honorary   Member

[i] Translated by Polina Spirina , “The First Russian Philosophical Society”, http://www.spho.ru/ob_obshestve/angl

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