The 160

Who were “The 160″?

 

160 conglomerateThe label “The 160” is a convenience, denoting approximately 160 intellectuals who were arrested and expelled from Russia in 1922, along with their families—some 225 people in all.

 

My initial attempt to tally the complete list in 1997 arrived at the positive identification of 141 intellectuals. Since then, the newly opened archives in the former Soviet Union have enabled scholars to add to this accounting and arrive at the now accepted number. The full list may be found in the appendix.

 

The 160 did not all belong to any particular political party; they were not all adherents of any one faith, ideology, or belief. More than a third were involved in the development of spiritual philosophy, art and culture in Russia. Some taught university courses and many were prolific writers.

 

Recently, the leading political thinkers and philosophers expelled as part of The 160 have been compared to the founding fathers of the United States of America…[See Putin’s Philosophy]

 

Another third were mostly former politicians, local cooperative assembly leaders, doctors, agronomists, and economists. The remainder of The 160 belonged to small sects like the Abrikosov group, Tolstoyans, or the Eurasians. And some did not even fit the designation “intellectual.” The only commonality they all shared was that Lenin personally selected them for arrest and deportation as dangerous opponents of the Bolshevik Party, people he deemed threatening enough to warrant expulsion, yet also too risky to kill.

 

oceanIn Russia today, these people are collectively referred to as Filosofskii parokhod (the Philosophers’ Steamer), denoting the luxury steam liners that were used to transport them out of the country. Since 2002, every five years on the anniversary of their expulsion, someone writes a memorial article to remember the impact of their loss for Russians.[ii]

 

Recently, the leading political thinkers and philosophers expelled as part of The 160 have been compared to the founding fathers of the United States of America: to thought leaders like Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson.[iii] The 160 believed in federalism, republicanism, and balance of powers in order to try to ensure a small, powerless government and protect the inalienable rights of man. Losing these thinkers can be equated to a massive brain drain for the vibrant, growing Russia at the turn of the 20th century.

List of The 160 Expelled in 1922[1]

# NAME Notes and Details of Arrest from Archives
1 Abrikosov, Vladimir V. Led own spiritual group. Uniate priest, disciple of Tolstoy.On Moscow List
2 Aikhenvald, Yuri Isayevich Critic; writer. Repressed in RussiaOn Moscow List.
3 Antonovskaia, Nadeahda Grigor’evna  “Not found”
4 Arbuzov, Aleksei Dmitrievich Member of Abrikosov’s group.On Moscow List
5 Artobolevsky, Ivan Alekseevich On Moscow List
6 Avsarkisov VKPG
7 Baikov, Aleksandr L’vovich Member of Abrikosov’s group.On Moscow List
8 Bakkal, Il’ya Yure’evich Publicist, political activist, SR, VKPG. On Moscow List
9 Bardygin, Vasily Member of the Archaeological Institute. On Moscow List
10 Belkin, V.P. YMCA/ARA
11 Berdyaev, Nikolai Alexandrovich Existentialist and Spiritual Philosopher. Legal Marxists, Vladimir Solovyev Society, Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, Bratstvo.OnMoscow List
12 Biriukov, P.I. VKPG
13 Bitsilli, P.M. Free Academy student
14 Bogolepov, Alexander Alexandrovich Historian; Deputy Vice-Chancellor (“Pro-Rector”), University of Petrograd.On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Not found”
15 Bol’shakov, Andrei, Mikhailovich Yagoda note:  “Not found” [means not found at first attempt at arrest]
16 Bordygin, Vasily Mikhailovich On Moscow List
17 Briling, Nikolai Romanovich On Moscow List
18 Bronstein, Isaiah Evseevich On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “arrested for banishment to freedom abroad.” Sent to Eastern provinces where specialty could be used combating epidemics
19 Brutskus, Boris Davidovich Economist. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “arrested for banishment to freedom; liquidation by telephone”
20 Bukshpan, Yakov Markovich Economist; Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, Repressed within Russia, not exiled
21 Bulatov, A. Journalist, economist, specialist of co-ops with Iziumov, Bulatov and Kudriasev. Cooperative Zadruga was liquidated. On Moscow List
22 Bulgakov, Sergei Nikolayevich Orthodox Priest and Spiritual Philosopher. Elected Head of the Bratstvo in 1924. Legal Marxists, Vladimir Solovyev Society, Free Academy of Spiritual Culture. St. Sergius Theological Seminary in Paris. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Not found” (Expelled in January 1923)
23 Bulgakov, Valentin Feodorovich Former Secretary to Lev Tolstoy (famous author). VKPG. On Moscow List
24 Butov, Pavel Il’ich Yagoda note: “Not found”
25 Chaadaev Yagoda note: “Not found”
26 Charnolussky
27 Chertkov, Vladimir Grigorevich VKPG; Tolstoyan.Reprieved; not Expelled
28 Dan, Feodor Menshevik
29 Dovarenko, A.G. VKPG
30 Dshivelegov, A.K. VKPG
31 Dyubua, Anatoly Eduardovich Writer and Jurist
32 Eichenwald, G.P.
33 Emshanov VKPG
34 Eremeev, Grigorii, Alekseevich On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “According to the agreement undersigned by President Kommissart Dzerzhinsky decrees that actions by char.[acter] pertains to anti-Soviet organization in West.   Do not exile to freedom. Await all judgment. keep under arrest. Do not free”
35 Ermolaev, Nikolai Nikolaevich Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “According to the agreement undersigned by President Kommissart Dzerzhinsky decrees that actions by char.[acter] pertains to anti-Soviet organization in West.   Do not exile to freedom. Await all judgment. keep under arrest. Do not free”
36 Feldstein, Mikhail Solomonovich Jurist; Professor at Moscow State University.Reprieved; Not Expelled
37 Florensky, Pavel A. Orthodox Priest and Spiritual Philosopher; Mathematician and Electrical Engineer; Inventor; Arrested in the 1922 wave but repressed inside of Russia, not expelled. Executed in 1937 by the NKVD (GPU/Cheka/KGB) during Stalin’s purges. Member of the Bratstvo and Vladimir Solovyov Society
38 Florovsky, A. Historian
39 Fomin, Vasily Emel’yanovich On Moscow List
40 Fomin, Vasily Emilianovich Professor of Histology at Moscow University No 1., Reprieved; Not Expelled
41 Frank, Semen (Semyon) Spiritual Philosopher. Legal Marxists, Vladimir Solovyev Society, Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, Bratstvo. OnMoscow List
42 Frenkel’, Grigorii Ivanovich Yagoda note: “Not found”
43 Geretsky, Viktor, Iakovlevich Yagoda note: “Not found”
44 Golovachev, Vadim Dmitrievich Student, Expelled; traveled on the Haken
45 Golovanov, D.I
46 Golovin Prince, F.A. VKPG. Leader of Kadets and President of the Duma after 1905; Presided over the dissolution of the Monarchy in 1917.
47 Gurevich, Emmanual Levovich VKPG
48 Gusarov, Ignaty Evdokimovich Professors Union Petrograd. On, Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “According to the agreement undersigned by President Kommissart Dzerzhinsky decrees that actions by char.[acter] pertains to anti-Soviet organization in West.   Do not exile to freedom, Await all judgment. keep under arrest. Do not free”
49 Gutkin, Abram Yakovlevich Doctor. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone.” Sent to Eastern provinces to help combat epidemics.
50 Iasinsky, V.I.
51 Ilyin, Ivan Alexandrovich Spiritual and Political Philosopher. Vladimir Solovyov Society, Vol’fila. On Moscow List
52 Iretsky, Viktor Yakovlevich Writer; Journalist. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
53 Israel’son
54 Izgaryshev, Nikolai Alekseevich On Moscow List
55 Izgoev-Lande, Alexander Solomonovich Spiritual Philosopher and Journalist. Began as Marxist Sociologist. Vladimir Solovyov Society. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation telephone”
56 Iziumov, Alexander Filaretovich Archivist; Specialist of co-ops and partner in Zadruga publishing co-op. Member of People’s Socialist Party. On Moscow List
57 Kagan, Abram Saulovich Publisher. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone”
58 Kantsel’, Efim Semenovich Doctor. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Exile, suspend first until receiving from tovarish Tsiperovicha guarantee and substantiation of such things,/ by order of Commissar 31/Aug/1922.” Sent to Eastern provinces where specialty could be used combating epidemics
59 Kargens, Nikolai Konstantinovich Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment freedom”
60 Karsavin, Lev, Platonovich Philosopher and Historian. Rector of University of St. Petersburg; Vladimir Solovyov Society; Vol’fila; Bratstvo. Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
61 Kartel’s, Nikolai Konstantinovich On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
62 Khariton, Boris Osipovich Journalist, Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone”
63 Khodasevich, Vladislav Poet; Partner Nina Berberova. Departed fearing he would be arrested and went into voluntary exile.
64 Kil’chevsky, Vladimir Agafonovich On Moscow List
65 Kizevetter, Alexander Alexandrovich Historian and Politician. Cadet, deputy at 2nd Duma; Vladimir Solovyov Society; listed in Frank’s correspondence as member of the Bratstvo. On Moscow List
66 Klassen VKPG
67 Klemens Yagoda note: “Not found”
68 Klevetsky On Tver’ List
69 Kogan, [Abram] Saulovich On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
70 Kondratyev, Nikolai Dmitrievich Professor of Agronomy; VKPG. On Moscow List. Reprieved; Not Expelled
71 Korobkov, Nikolai Dmitrievich On Moscow List
72 Kozlov, Nikolai Pavlovich Civil Engineer. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
73 Kravets, Tarichan Pavolovich On Moscow List
74 Krokhmal’, Viktor Nikolaievich Literature Expert, Petrograd. Yagoda note: “Release to exile decree. Kommission under president minister Dzerzhinsky. From 31-Aug-1933 on the basis of his personal letter to minister Dzerzhinsky in which he assured his own loyalty to Soviet power”
75 Kudryavtsev, Vasily Mikhailovich Deputy head of the Zadruga publishing co-op; Specialist of co-ops.On Moscow List
76 Kukhovarenko VKPG
77 Kukolevsky, Ivan Ivanovich Professor at the Higher Technical Institute; Specialist in Theoretical Hydraulics. On Moscow List. Reprieved; Not Expelled
78 Kuskova, Yekaterina Economist; Kadet; VKPG
79 Kutler, N.N. VKPG
80 Kuz’min-Karavaev, Dmitry Vladimirovich Poet; former SR. On Moscow List
81 Lapshin, Ivan Ivanovich Neo-Kantian Philosopher; Member of the Academy of Sciences. Philosopher, Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrested for banishment to Freedom”
82 Levitsky VKPG
83 Levitsky, V.A. VKPG
84 Lodyzhensky, I.I. Economics Professor. Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
85 Loskutov, Nikolai Nikolaevich Idealist and Spiritual Philosopher. Vladimir Solovyev Society, Vol’fila; Bratstvo. Moscow List
86 Lossky, Nikolai Onovreievich Idealist and Spiritual Philosopher. Vladimir Solovyev Society, Vol’fila; Bratstvo. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone”
87 Lutokhin, Dalmat Alexandrovich Economist. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone
88 Lyubimov, Nikolai Ivanovich Cooperativist. On Moscow List
89 Maloletnikov, Nikolai Vasil’evich Cooperativist. On Moscow List
90 Martsinkovsky, Vladimir Filimonovich Expelled by special order
91 Marveev, Ivan Petrovich On Moscow List
92 Matusevich, Iosif Alexandrovich Painter; Journalist. On Moscow List
93 Matveyev VKPG
94 Melgunov, Sergei M. Historian; White Activist
95 Myakotin, Venedikt Alexandrovich Historian and Founder of the Popular Socialist Party. Worked closely with Struve and helped found the Kadets. Editor of Russkoe Bogatstvo (“The Wealth of Russia”). ON Moscow List
96 Nolde VKPG
97 Novikov, Mikhail, Mikhailovich Vice-Chancellor / Rector of the University of Moscow, Zoologist. On Moscow List
98 Odintsov, Boris Nikolaevich Soil Scientist; Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
99 Oganovsky
100 Oldenburg, Sergei Fedorovich Russian Orientalist and Buddhist Scholar; Member of the Kadets and Academy of Sciences. VKPG
101 Osokin, Vladimir Mikhailovich Professors Union Petrograd. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
102 Osorgin, Mikhail Andreevich Writer; VKPG. On Moscow List
103 Ostrovsky, Andrei Andreevich Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
104 Ozeretskovsky, Veniamin Sergeevich Partner in the Zadruga publishing co-op; Popular Socialist.On Moscow List
105 Ozerov, Ivan Khristorovich Economist; Banker. Moscow List. Reprieved; Not Expelled
106 Palchinsky, Pyotr Ioakimovich Engineer. Moscow List. Reprieved; Not Expelled
107 Parshin, Nikolai Evgafovich  Moscow List
108 Paufler VKPG
109 Peshekhonov, Aleksei Vasilievich Economist; Minister of Food in the Provisional Government, VKPG. On Moscow List.
110 Petrishchev, Afanasy Borisovich Journalist. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Banish”
111 Pletnev, P.V.
112 Poletika, Vladimir Petrovich  Expelled by special order
113 Polner, Sergei Ivanovich Mathematician; Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
114 Prince Trubetskoy, Sergei, Evgenevich Historian, Philosopher; Vol’fila; Son of Evgeny. On Moscow List
115 Rozanov, Professor VKPG. On Saratov List
116 Diatrontov, Professor VKPG
117 Prokopovich, Sergei Economist; Kadet; VKPG
118 Pumpyansky, Leonid Moishevich Journalist. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone”
119 Rodionov, Nikolai Sergeevich VKPG
120 Romodanovsky, Nikolai Pavlovich Cooperatist. On Moscow List and Kaluga List.
121 Rozenberg, Vladimir Alexandrovich Editor, Russkie vedomosti (“The Russian Gazette”) and publisher. On Moscow List
122 Rozhkov Petersburg literary figure. Yagoda note: “Not found”
123 Rubnikov, Alexander Alexandrovich Economist; Agrarian Reformer; VKPG. On Moscow List. Reprieved; Not Expelled
124 Sadykova, Iulya, Nikoaevna Doctor. Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom.” Sent to Eastern provinces where specialty could be used combating epidemics
125 Sakharov, Andrei Vasil’evich On Moscow List
126 Savich, Konstantin Ivanovich Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Give up to judgment from participation in agitation.   Soviet organization abroad do not exile, keep within country”
127 Selivanov, Dmitri Fedorovich Mathematician; Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
128 Shept, Gustav Philosopher. Reprieved; Not Expelled
129 Shishkin, Marvei Dmitrievich Cooperatist. On Moscow List
130 Sigirsky, Alexander Ivanovich Cooperatist. On Moscow List
131 Soloveichik, Emanuil Borisovich Yagoda note: “Not found”
132 Sorokin, Pitrim Aleksandrovich Sociologist; Secretary to Alexander Kerensky after the March 1917 Revolution; Ekonomist. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom;” Settled in U.S.A
133 Stein, Viktor Maritsovich Professors Union Petrograd. Yagoda note: “In agreement with decree. Commission under president minister Dzerzhinsky – from exile into freedom and leave Petrograd. See personal statement.”
134 Stepun, Feodor Philosopher; Free Academy of Spiritual Cultural; Bratstvo
135 Stratonov, Vsevolod Viktorovich Dean of Faculty of Math at State University of Moscow.On Moscow List
136 Stroev, Vasily Nikolaievich On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
137 Tel’tevsky, Aleksei Vacilevich Professors Union Petrograd. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “According to the agreement undersigned by President Kommissart Dzerzhinsky decrees that actions by char.[acter] pertains to anti-Soviet organization in West.   Do not exile to freedom. Await all judgment. keep under arrest. Do not free”
138 Troshin, P.V.
139 Tsvetkov, Nikolai Alexandrovich Archivist at the Museum of the Red Army and Navy.On Moscow List
140 Tsvetkov, Sergei Nikolaevich Member of the Archaeological InstituteOn Moscow List
141 Tyapkin, Nikolai Dmitrievich On Moscow List
142 Ugrimov, Alexander Ivanovich Agronomist, VKPG. On Moscow List
143 Ushakov, Ivan Ivanovich Agriculturalist; Jurist; Professor,On Moscow List
144 Uspensky, Alexander Ivanovich Temporarily in Smolensk at the trial of the church ministers, On Moscow List
145 Vainberg On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
146 Velikhov, Pavel Apollonovich Agronomist, VKPG, On Moscow List
147 Vettser, German Rudol’fovich Yagoda note: “Not found”
148 Visloukh, Stanislav Mikhailovich Botanist; Professors Union Petrograd, On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom”
149 Volkovysky, Nikolai Moiseevich Journalist; Critic of Gumilov, On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List. “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone”
150 Vysheslavtsev, Boris Petrovich Spiritual Philosopher; Moscow group. Student of Paul Novgorodtsev and recommended by Berdyaev. Joined the Bratstvo in1924. Vladimir Solovyov Society, Free Academy of Spiritual Culture.On Moscow List
151 Yasinsky, Vsevolod Ivanovich Agronomist.On Moscow List
152 Yurovsky, Leonid Naumovich Financier; Pupil of Struve, Released, later perished in Stalin’s purges.
153 Yushtin, Ivan Ivanovich Agronomist. On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List
154 Zaitsev, Boris VKPG
155 Zamiatin, Evgeny I. Writer, Reprieved; Not Expelled. Yagoda note: “Exile- postpone first until person gives orders: by Order of Kommissart Minister Dzerzhinsky 31.Aug.1922” (Actually never sent out, allowed to remain in Russia)
156 Zbarskii, David Solomonovich Yagoda note: “Not found”
157 Zenkovsky V.V. Historian, Spiritual Philosopher. Member of the Bratstvo and became its secretary when reconvened in 1924
158 Zubashov, Efim Lukyanovich Agronomist, On Petrograd (St. Petersburg) List.   Yagoda note: “Arrest for banishment to freedom; for liquidation by telephone”
159 Zvorykin, Nikoali Nkolaevich Professor of economy.On Moscow List
160 Zvorykin, Vladimir Vasil’evich On Moscow List

 

 

[1]Intellectuals Arrested for Exiled in 1922: includes those who were repressed in Russia and not actually sent abroad.  In 1997, I could only trace 109.  The 160 figure was given by S. Fediukin, Velikii Oktiabr’ i intelligentsia (Moscow, 1972) 287.  At the Institute of Russian History in Moscow, its director Andrei Sakharov gave a number of 144; Iaroslav Leont’ev, a young scholar who is studying the expulsion, estimates their number to be closer to 200 if not more.  Kogan states 174 arrested and 160 expelled in “Vyslat za granitsu” 66.  Lindsey Chamberlin’s book Lenin’s Private War reveals GPU arrest report from 1922, thereby brining the list to 160.  300-312.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.